TIME OF FLIGHT DIFFRACTION
Although time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) can be used for a variety of applications, its primary use is rapid weld testing of circumferential and axial weld seams, also known as perpendicular TOFD scanning. Since the introduction of TOFD in the 1970s, the use of this reputed reliable non destructive testing technique has steadily increased. Manual execution is possible with TOFD, however, it is most commonly performed in combination with a recording device, that is, an encoder or industrial scanner. To achieve code compliance in North America, TOFD is often coupled with pulse-echo or phased array techniques in order to cover the root and cap regions of the weld.
- Weld inspection – Structural / Piping
- TOFD in lieu of Radiography Testing (ASME Sec VIII, API 620, ASME B31.3, B31.1)
- PCN, CSWIP, ASNT Level 2/3